In a previous article, we discussed how to use the strategy pattern to dynamically change an object’s behavior at runtime. Classically, polymorphism in object-oriented design is static and achieved through inheritance; however, with the strategy pattern you can accomplish the same goal dynamically. Indeed, this is an excellent way to handle situations when you need an object to exhibit different behavior at different times. However, it’s worth noting that the strategy pattern requires mutation of the object you’re working with. By using the strategy pattern, you are necessarily changing the algorithm that an object uses for a given behavior. In some situations, it may be preferable not to mutate a given object. Or more likely, you won’t even have the option of mutating an object because it may come from a codebase over which you have no control (such as an external library). Such cases are relatively common; however, it’s still possible to enhance an immutable object’s behavior. One effective means to do so is with the decorator pattern.
After 2.4a2 was released, in response to community reaction, Guido stated that he'd re-examine a community proposal, if the community could come up with a community consensus, a decent proposal, and an implementation. After an amazing number of posts, collecting a vast number of alternatives in the Python wiki , a community consensus emerged (below). Guido subsequently rejected  this alternate form, but added:
And for the more subtle decorators, there a slew of super-cute displays that are much more low-key. Check out these meddling mice, a simple trick or treat text, or this tribute to Edgar Allan Poe. — Jennifer Aldrich, Country Living, "These Halloween Stair Decals Will Instantly Transform Your Home Into a Haunted House," 7 Oct. 2018 Another fun tidbit for all of you aspiring IRL dorm decorators, Hailey painted all the art featured in her freshman dorm — now, that’s the perfect personal touch. — Katelyn Chef, Teen Vogue, "University of Mississippi Dorm Decor," 23 Aug. 2018 We reporters and bloggers eat family style, at a long table chosen and donated by Rachael Ray (and her decorator). — Grant Cornett, Vogue, "The Rise of Refugee Cuisine—a Food-World Trend to Feel Good About," 17 Aug. 2018 The social media sensation has forced some decorators to think outside the box and get creative with non-edible decorations. — Caroline Judelson, Fox News, "Engagement cookies are the new bridal trend," 9 Aug. 2018 The project took Kime two years, during which time decorator and client became close friends. — David Usborne, Town & Country, "The Mysterious Case of the Parnham House Fire," 29 May 2018 The look, which also can be seen in her other homes, reflects the influence of Gail Melikian, Ms. Rafaelian’s best friend and decorator who owns an antique store in Cranston. — Candace Taylor, WSJ, "Inside the Many, Many Homes of This Jewelry Billionaire," 12 July 2018 Naturally, faux fur also appeals to home decorators who want to stay animal-friendly. — Kelsey Kloss, ELLE Decor, "How To Decorate With Faux Fur, According To Top Designers," 7 Sep. 2016 The 11,821 square feet of living space was designed by former White House decorator Michael Smith and features reclaimed fireplace mantels, hand-hewn hardwood floors and custom ironwork. — Jack Flemming, latimes.com, "Mega-producer Jerry Bruckheimer pulls in $11.5 million for Brentwood estate," 16 June 2018
Using functions with "action-at-a-distance" through sys.settraceback may be okay for an obscure feature that can't be had any other way yet doesn't merit changes to the language, but that's not the situation for decorators. The widely held view here is that decorators need to be added as a syntactic feature to avoid the problems with the postfix notation used in 2.2 and 2.3. Decorators are slated to be an important new language feature and their design needs to be forward-looking, not constrained by what can be implemented in 2.3.
- [John] When digital artists create expressive art, they tend to reach for a Corel Painter. Painter has a 27-year history of advancing what is possible on the digital canvas and continues to forge new ground. The latest 2019 edition featured here takes a short breather from brush-related features and concentrates on usability and workflow with a complete interface redesign. We'll highlight the new interface by taking on the assignment of creating five travel posters celebrating the great state of California.
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil, such as linseed oil, which was widely used in early modern Europe. Often the oil was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense; these were called 'varnishes' and were prized for their body and gloss. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe.
The discussion continued on and off on python-dev from February 2002 through July 2004. Hundreds and hundreds of posts were made, with people proposing many possible syntax variations. Guido took a list of proposals to EuroPython 2004 , where a discussion took place. Subsequent to this, he decided that we'd have the Java-style  @decorator syntax, and this appeared for the first time in 2.4a2. Barry Warsaw named this the 'pie-decorator' syntax, in honor of the Pie-thon Parrot shootout which occurred around the same time as the decorator syntax, and because the @ looks a little like a pie. Guido outlined his case  on Python-dev, including this piece  on some of the (many) rejected forms.
Note that greet_bob(say_hello) refers to two functions, but in different ways: greet_bob() and say_hello. The say_hello function is named without parentheses. This means that only a reference to the function is passed. The function is not executed. The greet_bob() function, on the other hand, is written with parentheses, so it will be called as usual.
There have been a number of objections raised to this location -- the primary one is that it's the first real Python case where a line of code has an effect on a following line. The syntax available in 2.4a3 requires one decorator per line (in a2, multiple decorators could be specified on the same line), and the final decision for 2.4 final stayed one decorator per line.
... the keyword starting the line that heads a block draws a lot of attention to it. This is true for "if", "while", "for", "try", "def" and "class". But the "using" keyword (or any other keyword in its place) doesn't deserve that attention; the emphasis should be on the decorator or decorators inside the suite, since those are the important modifiers to the function definition that follows. ...
Gouache is a water-based paint consisting of pigment and other materials designed to be used in an opaque painting method. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much higher, and an additional, inert, white pigment such as chalk is also present. This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities. Like all watermedia, it is diluted with water.
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