Painters and paperhangers stand for prolonged periods. Their jobs also require a considerable amount of climbing, bending, kneeling, crouching, crawling and reaching with arms raised overhead often on scaffolding, ladders, and working at heights. Painters often work outdoors but seldom in wet, cold or inclement weather. Painters wear masks to reduce exposure to hazardous materials or paint fumes when working in areas with poor ventilation. Much of the work is done alone requiring independent thinking, safety awareness and ability to communicate with the customer. Special equipment is often used; such as equipment for welding, for use while scaffolding, on booms and lifts.
Painters take care of the outside of buildings, city infrastructure and any kind of new architecture development. The handiwork of painters surrounds us at every turn. Ron Yarbrough, founder and president of Pro-Spec Painting Inc., says the painting profession's focus areas are endless – there's something for everyone. "I think there are tremendous opportunities for those that want to enter the painting trade. And I think that [the field] has so many different segments to it – all the way from infrastructure to new construction of commercial buildings and many types of decorative art and restoration." The will and patience to do the work is all it takes to succeed, he adds. "People who are really committed to learning the trade can do well at it. If they set their goals high, they can make a really good living at it." Painters commonly work for building finishing contractors or in the residential building construction industry. Unlike carpenters, painters typically don't build frameworks and structures; they apply paint, stain and coatings to them.

In 1890, the Parisian painter Maurice Denis famously asserted: "Remember that a painting—before being a warhorse, a naked woman or some story or other—is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order."[16] Thus, many 20th-century developments in painting, such as Cubism, were reflections on the means of painting rather than on the external world—nature—which had previously been its core subject. Recent contributions to thinking about painting have been offered by the painter and writer Julian Bell. In his book What is Painting?, Bell discusses the development, through history, of the notion that paintings can express feelings and ideas.[17] In Mirror of The World, Bell writes:


Note that greet_bob(say_hello) refers to two functions, but in different ways: greet_bob() and say_hello. The say_hello function is named without parentheses. This means that only a reference to the function is passed. The function is not executed. The greet_bob() function, on the other hand, is written with parentheses, so it will be called as usual.
Gouache is a water-based paint consisting of pigment and other materials designed to be used in an opaque painting method. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much higher, and an additional, inert, white pigment such as chalk is also present. This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities. Like all watermedia, it is diluted with water.[21]

Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, collage, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required.
Just take a look at the code again. In the if/else clause we are returning greet and welcome, not greet() and welcome(). Why is that? It’s because when you put a pair of parentheses after it, the function gets executed; whereas if you don’t put parenthesis after it, then it can be passed around and can be assigned to other variables without executing it. Did you get it? Let me explain it in a little bit more detail. When we write a = hi(), hi() gets executed and because the name is yasoob by default, the function greet is returned. If we change the statement to a = hi(name = "ali") then the welcome function will be returned. We can also do print hi()() which outputs now you are in the greet() function.

The decorator pattern, also known as the wrapper pattern, is when you wrap an object within another object, thus providing a means of enhancing or overriding certain behavior. The wrapper object will delegate any incoming method calls to the original object, unless it defines a new method to enhance or replace the original object’s behavior. By using the decorator pattern, you can dynamically create as many decorated objects as you want, each enhancing the behavior of the original object in a unique way — and all without mutating the original object. In this manner, you can effectively add, remove, or extend behaviors at runtime.

Some commonly used decorators that are even built-ins in Python are @classmethod, @staticmethod, and @property. The @classmethod and @staticmethod decorators are used to define methods inside a class namespace that are not connected to a particular instance of that class. The @property decorator is used to customize getters and setters for class attributes. Expand the box below for an example using these decorators.


Digital painting is a method of creating an art object (painting) digitally and/or a technique for making digital art in the computer. As a method of creating an art object, it adapts traditional painting medium such as acrylic paint, oils, ink, watercolor, etc. and applies the pigment to traditional carriers, such as woven canvas cloth, paper, polyester etc. by means of computer software driving industrial robotic or office machinery (printers). As a technique, it refers to a computer graphics software program that uses a virtual canvas and virtual painting box of brushes, colors and other supplies. The virtual box contains many instruments that do not exist outside the computer, and which give a digital artwork a different look and feel from an artwork that is made the traditional way. Furthermore, digital painting is not 'computer-generated' art as the computer does not automatically create images on the screen using some mathematical calculations. On the other hand, the artist uses his own painting technique to create the particular piece of work on the computer.[25]
Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic (primary) and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown, etc.).
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